I edit videos non-stop nowadays. In a former life, I had a 2 TB backup volume and that stored my entire digital life—all my photos, family video clips, and every bit of code and text I'd ever written.
Video is a different beast, entirely.
Every minute of 4K ProRes LT footage (which is a very lightweight format, compared to RAW) is 3 GB of space. A typical video I produce has between 30-60 minutes of raw footage (which brings the total project size up to around 100-200 GB).
To edit footage well, the data not only needs to move fast (1 Gbps barely cuts it for a single stream), it also needs to have very low latency, otherwise Final Cut Pro (my editor of choice) lags quite a bit while scrubbing over dozens of video clips.
Therefore, I always used to edit videos off my local SSD drive. And sometimes over the network using macOS's built-in file sharing. But as my video workflow matures, I find myself needing a central storage solution disconnected from my main workstation.
Thus, the all-SSD high-performance edit NAS—on a budget.
I had five 8TB Samsung QVO SSDs from my insane $5000 Raspberry Pi server build. Until now, I had them inside my 2.5 Gbps NAS. But I wanted to build my own NAS capable of saturating a 10 Gbps connection, and allowing extremely low latency data access over the network to my two Macs, both of which are connected to my wired 10 Gbps home network.
Used Server Parts
This server build can be done with just as much capability (but a lower storage amount) on a more stringent budget, or can go 'all out' maxing out the RAM and SSD storage space. I'll show a price comparison of both (noting that my needs—tons of RAM and tons of SSD space—may not match your own, if the main goal is 'very fast SSD NAS'):
|Price (high - as built)
|Supermicro X10SDV-4C-TLN2F motherboard / Xeon D / Dual 10 GbE (eBay)
|DDR4-2133 ECC RAM (Didion Orf e-waste recycling)
|$50 (256GB USB Drive)
|$125 (512GB XG6)
|2U Rackmount Case
|2x Noctua 80mm case fans
|$180 (MX500 1TB x2)
|$3490 (QVO 8TB x5)
When looking at the price discrepancy, you have to realize (a) I already had the 8TB SSDs, from some projects I tested last year... most people don't have those things laying around, and (b) I will actually use that much low-latency storage... most people probably don't and would be better off with less SSD storage and more spinning disks (which are much cheaper per TB).
The motivation for this build came from finding this Supermicro X10SDV-4C-TLN2F Mini ITX motherboard. The price ($270 shipped) was low enough I could consider building with it, and it already included an older-but-not-too-power-hungry Xeon D SoC, two 10 Gbps Ethernet ports, and 5 SATA-III connectors, the basic components I needed for the build.
ServeTheHome gave this motherboard a good review when it came out, and as long as things were in working order, it should still be a good choice, though less efficient and performant than a more expensive 2020s-era board.
I needed to find a Mini ITX rackmount enclosure, and luckily I'd been in talks with MyElectronics after using their prototype 'blue' enclosure for a remote Pi cluster installation I was testing. They are working on a new 2U mini ITX short-depth enclosure, and they sent me an early revision to use in this build:
They said the enclosure should be available 'soon' for around $200, but they're still working out a few details with port placement, the power supply configuration, and PCIe slot layout.
I already had the SSDs on hand, and to be honest, you could use much less expensive SSDs if you don't need many TB of flash storage—heck, right now I'm only using a few percent of it! But those cost around $3500 new.
To round out the build, I bought a couple Noctua fans, and 128 GB of recycled ECC RAM from an e-waste recycler only a dozen miles from where I live. They sold me four sticks of 32GB ECC DDR4-2133 RAM (HP branded) for $220.
Yes there's a sponsor (for the SSD)
To help fund this build, I got Micro Center to sponsor the build video, and they contributed a Kioxia XG6, which is sold under Supermicro's name:
They sell the 512GB model I used for about $125—in store! I didn't realize they have some Supermicro (and sometimes Dell/EMC) server gear in stock at their stores in the US. I just wish they had more locations (both here and internationally!).
BIOS and UEFI
I put all the hardware together, and installed TrueNAS from a USB stick to the NVMe drive. If you're wondering why I chose TrueNAS core, check out the full video where I speak to Wendell from Level1Techs about performance considerations and the storage layout for this NAS.
But I had a problem: I couldn't get the Supermicro motherboard to boot off UEFI. I was getting errors about "CPU with APIC ID 0 is not enabled", and I spent an hour messing around in the BIOS before (temporarily) giving up and throwing in a SATA boot SSD.
This motherboard is from around 2015, an era when NVMe boot on servers wasn't commonplace. Couple that with the M.2 slot accepting either SATA or NVMe drives, and most people preferring to boot off a SuperDOM instead, and I knew I was kind of on my own debugging it.
With the SATA SSD installed, I was able to get consistent performance using a striped RAIDZ mirror pool with four SSDs and a hot spare—but that performance stayed around 320 MB/sec writes over long periods of time! That's only a third of the available bandwidth, and only a little better than the 200-250 MB/sec I was getting on my 2.5 Gigabit NAS.
After some more consulting with Wendell and talking to Patrick from ServeTheHome, I was able to figure out both the boot issue (just had to mess with the UEFI boot settings a bit more), and the performance issue (it... ended up going away after I replugged everything).
With the built-in SATA ports, I got around 700 MB/sec write speed over the network, and 1.1 GB/sec reads. Latency was great, and editing Final Cut Pro projects felt the same as if editing local.
Just to see what was possible, I also tossed in a MegaRAID 9405W-16i HBA, and re-tested, and could get 1.1 GB/sec both ways... but I went back to the onboard SATA when I measured 7-15W more power consumption using the HBA. A few hundred MB/sec isn't worth the extra power consumption—especially considering I'd need to figure out how to properly cool the HBA:
First time using ZFS in production
A few of the things I modified in my TrueNAS storage pool configuration, based on Wendell's recommendations:
- Sync: Disabled: I disabled ZFS's sync option, meaning ZFS would report back to the OS a file was written even before it's fully written to disk. This is risky, but since I'm always copying footage I have a golden copy of already, and since I'm running the NAS on a UPS, the risk is minimized. With the 'Standard' setting, ZFS would limp along for a period, then go fast (700+ MB/sec), then limp along again. Speed was very inconsistent.
- 1M Record Size: Since I'm mostly pushing video files (with tens of MB/sec) through the server, having a smaller block size would just result in more IO operations. If I were running a database on here, I would consider a smaller size, but this is optimized for video.
- Periodic maintenance: I set up nightly snapshots, weekly scrubs, and weekly S.M.A.R.T. scans, and made sure the server could email me a notification if anything went awry. One of the best benefits of an out-of-the-box solution like TrueNAS is the ease of setting these long-term automation tasks up.
The nightly snapshots (and indeed, ZFS/RAID itself) is NOT at all a substitution for a rigorous backup plan. For now I'll be
rsyncing the volume to my main NAS nightly, and that's backed up offsite to Amazon Glacier weekly. Eventually I might use ZFS's
sync functionality to synchronize snapshots to my backup server. We'll see.
For now, I'm happy having a server that can consistently write 700+ MB/sec, and read 1.1 GB/sec, with extremely low latency, over my 10 gigabit network.
Watch the full video to learn more about the thought process and some of the struggles I had.