I recently had a server with some bandwidth limitations (tested using
rsync -P), where I was wondering if the problem was the data being transferred, or the server's link speed.
The simplest way to debug and verify TCP performance is to install
iperf3 and run an iperf speed test between the server and my computer.
On the server, you run
iperf3 -s, and on my computer,
iperf3 -c [server ip].
iperf3 requires port 5201 (by default) to be open on the server, and in many cases—especially if the server is inside a restricted environment and only accessible through SSH (e.g. through a bastion or limited to SSH connectivity only)—you won't be able to get that port accessible.
So in my case, I wanted to run iperf through an SSH tunnel. This isn't ideal, because you're testing the TCP performance through an encrypted connection. But in this case both the server and my computer are extremely new/fast, so I'm not too worried about the overhead lost to the connection encryption, and my main goal was to get a performance baseline.
Without further ado, here's how I set up the SSH-tunneled iperf3 run:
On my machine, I set up a tunnel for port 7001:
$ ssh -p [ssh port on server] -L7001:localhost:7001 jeffgeerling@[server ip]
Then, SSH'ed into the server, I started an instance of
iperf3 listening on port 7001:
$ iperf3 -s -p 7001
Finally, on my machine, I ran some iperf3 tests:
$ iperf3 -c localhost -p 7001 Connecting to host localhost, port 7001 [ 7] local ::1 port [port here] connected to ::1 port 7001 [ ID] Interval Transfer Bitrate [ 7] 0.00-1.00 sec 23.9 MBytes 200 Mbits/sec [ 7] 1.00-2.00 sec 20.9 MBytes 176 Mbits/sec
This answer on the Unix stack exchange was helpful in writing this post, and it also goes one level deeper showing how to tunnel through a bastion server instead of just directly through SSH to the server.