testing

Getting colorized output from Molecule and Ansible on GitHub Actions for CI

For many new Ansible-based projects, I build my tests in Molecule, so I can easily run them locally or in CI. I also started using GitHub Actions for many of my new Ansible projects, just because it's so easy to get started and integrate with GitHub repositories.

I'm actually going to talk about this strategy in my next Ansible 101 live stream, covering Testing Ansible playbooks with Molecule and GitHub Actions CI, but I also wanted to highlight one thing that helps me when reviewing or observing playbook and molecule output, and that's color.

By default, in an interactive terminal session, Ansible colorizes its output so failures get 'red' color, good things / ok gets 'green', and changes get 'yellow-ish'. Also, warnings get a magenta color, which flags them well so you can go and fix them as soon as possible (that's one core principle I advocate to make your playbooks maintainable and scalable).

Running a Github Actions workflow on schedule and other events

One thing that was not obvious when I was setting up GitHub Actions on the Ansible Kubernetes Collection repository was how to have a 'CI' workflow run both on pull requests and on a schedule. I like to have scheduled runs for most of my projects, so I can see if something starts failing because an underlying dependency changes and breaks my tests.

The documentation for on.schedule just has an example with the workflow running on a schedule. For example:

on:
  schedule:
    # * is a special character in YAML so you have to quote this string
    - cron:  '*/15 * * * *'

Separately, there's documentation for triggering a workflow on events like a 'push' or a 'pull_request':

Molecule fails on converge and says test instance was already 'created' and 'prepared'

I hit this problem every once in a while; basically, I run molecule test or molecule converge (in this case it was for a Kubernetes Operator I was building with Ansible), and it says the instance is already created/prepared—even though it is not—and then Molecule fails on the 'Gathering Facts' portion of the converge step:

How to add integration tests to an Ansible collection with Molecule

Note: Ansible Collections are currently in tech preview. The details of this blog post may be outdated by the time you read this, though I will try to keep things updated if possible.

Ansible 2.8 and 2.9 introduced a new type of Ansible content, a 'Collection'. Collections are still in tech preview state, so things are prone to change.

Ansible Collections must be in a very specific path, like {...}/ansible_collections/{namespace}/{collection}/

You have to make sure your collection is in that specific path—with an empty directory named ansible_collections, then a directory for the namespace, and finally a directory for the collection itself. I opened an issue in the Ansible issue queue asking if ansible-test can allow running tests in an arbitrary collection directory, and for Molecule itself, there's more of a 'meta' issue, Molecule and Ansible Collections.

How to add integration tests to an Ansible Collection with ansible-test

Note: Ansible Collections are currently in tech preview. The details of this blog post may be outdated by the time you read this, though I will try to keep things updated if possible.

Ansible 2.8 and 2.9 introduced a new type of Ansible content, a 'Collection'. Collections are still in tech preview state, so things are prone to change, but one thing that the Ansible team has been working on is improving ansible-test to be able to test modules, plugins, and roles in Collections (previously it was only used for testing Ansible core).

ansible-test currently requires your Collection be in a very specific path, either:

Cleaning up after adding files in Drupal Behat tests

I've been going kind of crazy covering a particular Drupal site I'm building in Behat tests—testing every bit of core functionality on the site. In this particular case, a feature I'm testing allows users to upload arbitrary files to an SFTP server, then Drupal shows those filenames in a streamlined UI.

I needed to be able to test the user action of "I'm a user, I upload a file to this directory, then I see the file listed in a certain place on the site."

These files are not managed by Drupal (e.g. they're not file field uploads), but if they were, I'd invest some time in resolving this issue in the drupalextension project: "When I attach the file" and Drupal temporary files.

Since they are just random files dropped on the filesystem, I needed to:

Testing the 'Add user' and 'Edit account' forms in Drupal 8 with Behat

On a recent project, I needed to add some behavioral tests to cover the functionality of the Password Policy module. I seem to be a sucker for pain, because often I choose to test the things it seems there's no documentation on—like testing the functionality of the partially-Javascript-powered password fields on the user account forms.

In this case, I was presented with two challenges:

  • I needed to run one scenario where a user edits his/her own password, and must follow the site's configured password policy.
  • I needed to run another scenario where an admin creates a new user account, and must follow the site's configured password policy for the created user's password.

So I came up with the following scenarios:

Testing your Ansible roles with Molecule

After the announcement on September 26 that Ansible will be adopting molecule and ansible-lint as official 'Ansible by Red Hat' projects, I started moving more of my public Ansible projects over to Molecule-based tests instead of using the homegrown Docker-based Ansible testing rig I'd been using for a few years.

Molecule sticker in front of AnsibleFest 2018 Sticker

There was also a bit of motivation from readers of Ansible for DevOps, many of whom have asked for a new section on Molecule specifically!

In this blog post, I'll walk you through how to use Molecule, and how I converted all my existing roles (which were using a different testing system) to use Molecule and Ansible Lint-based tests.

Logging in as an existing user in a Behat test with the Drupal Extension

There are some occasions when I want my Drupal Behat tests to perform some action as a user that already exists on the Drupal site. For example, I have a test install profile with some Default Content (users, nodes, taxonomy terms, etc.), and it already has a large set of default test data set up on the site for the benefit of developers who need to work on theming/site building.

Rather than define a ton of extra Behat steps to re-create all this test content and these test users, I just want Behat to log in as an existing user and perform actions with the pre-existing content.

Note that this might not be a good idea depending on the structure or philosophy of your site's testing. As a general principle, state should be avoided—and that includes things like 'having a set of default stuff already existing before a test runs'. However, in the real world there are situations where it's a ton easier to just use the state that exists ?.

The problem

Out of the box, the Drupal API Driver lets you create a user in a Scenario and then use that created user, like so:

CI for Ansible playbooks which require Ansible Vault protected variables

I use Ansible Vault to securely store the project's secrets (e.g. API keys, default passwords, private keys, etc.) in the git repository for many of my infrastructure projects. I also like to make sure I cover everything possible in automated tests/CI, using either Jenkins or Travis CI (usually).

But this presents a conundrum: if some of your variables are encrypted with an Ansible Vault secret/passphrase, and that secret should be itself store securely... how can you avoid storing it in your CI system, where you might not be able to guarantee it's security?

The method I usually use for this case is including the Vault-encrypted vars at playbook runtime, using include_vars: