Monitoring my home's air quality (CO2, PM2.5, Temp/Humidity) with AirGradient's DIY sensor

A few months ago, I found this Hacker News post about the AirGradient DIY Air Quality Monitor. I had already been considering buying an AirThings Wave Plus sensor to monitor my home's CO2 levels, but the high price and limited 'ownership' of the data coming from it turned me off.

AirGradient DIY Air Quality Sensor - Focus Stacked by Jeff Geerling

So I built two AirGradient DIY air quality monitor boards (see above), and integrated them into my Prometheus + Grafana home monitoring setup I've been using to monitor other things in my house:

AirGradient DIY Grafana Dashboard for CO2 PM2.5 Temperature Humidity monitoring

I emailed Achim, the founder of AirGradient, and took him up on his offer for free PCBs if I paid the shipping cost. A couple weeks later I received two fresh PCBs from Thailand. If you don't want to wait for the shipping, or want to make a bunch of sensor boards, you can also download the Gerber files from the AirGradient DIY page and have your own PCBs made.

Update: It looks like AirGradient now offers DIY Air Quality Sensor kits that you can purchase, which include all the sensors in one package. That definitely makes sourcing the parts easier!

Parts and Cost

As suggested on the DIY sensor page, I ordered all the components through AliExpress. The prices there were often half what they were from any US supplier, though shipping was a different matter—even though shipping direct from China was a pittance (free, in fact, for most of the components), it took at least a month for all the various components I ordered to arrive.

With most US suppliers, I could get 2-3 day shipping; but, for one example of the price difference: the same SenseAir S8 that cost $30 from AliExpress costs $60 from a US distributor!

Here's the list of all the prices I paid, to get an idea of the total cost (all prices in USD):

Note that when I went to order the Plantower sensor, it was out of stock, so I picked one up from Amazon instead (DEVMO PMS5003 PM2.5 particle sensor) for $35. Steep price difference, but hey, at least I got it!

All-in, the components for this project cost between $60-80, depending on where you get your parts.

Assembly and Soldering

AirGradient's DIY assembly guide is already pretty solid, but if you want even more detail, watch my video on the DIY air quality monitor, where I show each step of the assembly:

The hardest part is the stripping and soldering of the tiny stranded wires that come with the PM2.5 sensor, but I made short work of it with a little Adjustable Wrench Stripper that's designed for stripping smaller-gauge wires.

3D Printed Case

AirGradient also offers a 3D-printable case and wall mount bracket, which seem to fit together well (if not a bit tight) and hold the board in the best orientation for the various sensors to work well.

AirGradient DIY air quality monitor mounted on wall inside 3D Printed case

The case is well-ventilated, and my only complaint is the natural convection causes very-slightly-warmed air from the WeMos D1 and CO2 sensor to pass over the temperature and humidity sensor on the top, meaning those readings are always a bit higher than ambient—at least in my office.

Flashing the firmware / AirGradient software

With the hardware put together, I followed the guide for setting up the software on the WeMos D1 Mini. The guide was decent, but I figured I'd go through every step in detail here, especially since I changed a few things to make it easier for me to get air quality data on my local Prometheus instance instead of on AirGradient's servers.

First, the easiest way to flash an ESP8266 is to Install Arduino IDE. On my Mac, since I use Homebrew, it was a simple matter of:

brew install --cask arduino

Then you have to configure Arduino IDE so it can manage an ESP8266 board like the WeMos D1 Mini:

  1. Open Arduino IDE
  2. Open the Preferences window
  3. Add to "Additional Boards Manager URL".
  4. Open "Boards Manager..." from Tools > Board menu.
  5. Search for the "esp8266" board and install it's latest version.
  6. Select "LOLIN(WEMOS) D1 R2 Mini" from the Tools > Board > ESP8266 menu.

Optionally, you can test your setup by uploading the Blink sketch:

  1. Open File > Examples > 01.Basics > Blink.
  2. Make sure "LOLIN(WEMOS) D1 R2 Mini" is selected in the Tools > Board menu.
  3. Go to Tools > Port and select the USB serial port where the ESP8266 is plugged in (in my case, "/dev/cu.usbserial-210")
  4. Click the 'Upload' button (right arrow) to upload the sketch to the board.

After a minute or so, the blue onboard LED (which is under the OLED shield) should start blinking continuously.

Now it's time to flash the AirGradient software to the WeMos D1 Mini:

  1. Go to Tools > Manage Libraries...
  2. Search for "AirGradient", and install the latest version.
  3. Choose "C02_PM_SHT_OLED_WIFI" from the File > Examples > AirGradient Air Quality Sensor menu.
  4. Install the libraries suggested at the top of the file via Tools > Manage Libraries...
    • WifiManager by tablatronix
    • ESP8266 and ESP32 OLED driver for SSD1306 by ThingPulse
  5. Optionally enable WiFi at this point by setting the connectWIFI variable to true.
  6. Upload the sketch to the ESP8266.
  7. After a minute or so, the OLED display should read "Init", then after a delay it will start printing PM2.5, CO2, and Temperature/Humidity numbers, in sequence.

I actually forked the C02_PM_SHT_OLED_WIFI example and maintain my own copy, which points the board at my local Prometheus instance. You can see my forked copy here: AirGradient-DIY.ino.

Getting data into Prometheus

If you just set connectWIFI to true, it would send data to AirGradient's servers (defined in the the APIROOT variable). The payload is simple JSON, so I wrote a script that logs the data from the sensor, and another script running at a /metrics endpoint, which returns the latest data when Prometheus requests it.

Those PHP scripts, along with a README file that explains how to run them in a tiny Docker container, are available in my open source AirGradient Prometheus Exporter project on GitHub.

To get the AirGradient board to send its data to my Internet Pi—where I chose to run the AirGradient exporter—I changed the APIROOT in the Arduino sketch to

I actually have two air quality sensors running now—I set the first one to port 9925, and the second to port 9926, and my Internet Pi has two Docker containers running the individual exporter for each port.

I flashed the device using Arduino IDE, then when it showed 'Connect to WiFi' on the screen, I connected directly to the device's 'AIRGRADIENT' WiFi hotspot, then my Mac popped up the connection screen, and I added the credential to connect it to an 802.11 b/g/n access point on my network.

After a few seconds, it connected, then every 9 seconds or so, the sensor POSTS something like the following data to the Raspberry Pi: - - [06/Jul/2021 12:54:59] "POST /sensors/airgradient:1995c6/measures HTTP/1.1" 200 -
INFO:root:POST request,
Path: /sensors/airgradient:1995c6/measures
User-Agent: ESP8266HTTPClient
Accept-Encoding: identity;q=1,chunked;q=0.1,*;q=0
Connection: keep-alive
content-type: application/json
Content-Length: 56


The script running in the Prometheus Exporter then stored the data in a file, and when Prometheus calls the /metrics endpoint on the same port, the metrics are transformed into a format Prometheus can understand.

Finally, once I had all that data, I built dashboards in Grafana to display the air quality sensor data over time—one for the board in my basement office, and one for the board upstairs in the main part of my house:

AirGradient DIY Air Quality Sensor Graph CO2 PM2.5 Temperature and Humidity in Grafana

It's easy enough to identify when I was in the office if you look at the CO2 graph above—and I can imagine if there were more people crammed into that 12 sq ft space, it would spike even higher!

The levels top out around 900 ppm when I have my air vent open in the office, but I've observed them going beyond 3000 ppm when I closed the vent and was in the office for more than a couple hours at a time. So... moral of that story is to make sure you have some fresh air circulation!


The sensor package and board layout aren't perfect; the temperature and humidity sensor, in particular, is always a few degrees (F) higher than other known-working thermometers display. And the SenseAir S8 takes a couple weeks before its self-calibration routine finishes—until that's done, CO2 levels will likely show as being at least 200 ppm higher than they actually are.

But after a few weeks, and after adding in a manual temperature adjustment to compensate for that sensor's inaccuracy, the AirGradient has been a very stable and helpful addition to my home environment monitoring.

PM2.5 in danger zone from monitoring with AirGradient DIY

In fact, after having my basement windows replaced, the PM2.5 sensor indicated particulates were above 50 μg/m³, which is an actionable level—if I hadn't opened a window with a fan circulating extra outside air, that level would've remained high for many hours, exposing my family to whatever tiny bits of dust and chemicals lingered in the air.

If you want even more detail about the build process, check out my YouTube video on the AirGradient DIY Air Quality sensor.


How does calibration work? How can you be confident it has accurate results?

If you want lab-grade results, you'd need the right testing equipment (see SenseAir's website), but I'm okay with consumer-grade. So for that, my informal process is to place multiple sensors (ideally from different vendors—e.g. TemTop + my DIY sensor + another if I have it) next to each other a foot or so away in a couple places for a couple days, and compare the results.

If they're within a close range, they're accurate, if not, they're not, and they may need adjustment.

For the temperature sensor on the DIY board, it is definitely 5-10°F higher than ambient, so I'll need to figure out a better solution for its placement.

For the PM2.5 and CO2 sensors, the data between the TemTop and my two DIY boards is very close (usually < 2% difference, e.g. TemTop reads 820 ppm, DIY reads 814 ppm). But note that the SenseAir S8, at least, requires at least a couple weeks to self-calibrate—it does that I think by trying to get a baseline, and that baseline it calibrates to is somewhere around 440 ppm? Not quite sure, but I remember reading about it in a spec sheet and thinking it was a little above my pay grade.

There's a way to force-calibrate it, too, if you have a stable environment where you can do that.

It's important to note that (especially) the CO2 sensors have quite a wide range (usually 3%, 50 PPM) and will auto-calibrate, depending on the chip that's on them. You can sometimes turn that off.

These types of NDIR CO2 sensors (single chamber) are also not meant for 24/7 occupancy, they will try to reset to ambient (usually 400, or 425) once a day, a week, or some other interval by default because they don't have a second sealed chamber to calibrate on. If you see them gradually rising over time and then see sharp drops back to 400-ish that's why. Also note that the CO2 sensor is temperature sensitive which is one of the reasons it needs to calibrate that often.

For your temperature sensor; using the BME280 on a breakout for temperature will always give high results, you might want to incorporate a DS18B20 specifically for temperature sensing, it's THT and you will be able to position it further from other components.

This is great! I did something similar with the AirThings Wave Plus. I know you were concerned about the ownership of the airwave plus data, but the cloud functionality relies on the phone app to upload to their servers. I use a raspi with a bluetooth dongle to extract the data using their python reader This makes it so the data stays within my house. I expose that data as a prometheus endpoint and have a very similar looking dashboard - . I am using a SDS011 Nova PM Sensor for the particulate. Radon sensor was my highest priority when making this set up, because I wanted to make sure my Radon suppression system was functioning correctly

Thanks, Jeff, for sharing this project! I was also wanting to put together an air quality sensor array, so this was perfect timing. To keep the data local to my network, I'm hacking the AirGradient code to use MQTT and send the data to a Mosquitto MQTT Broker on a RPi4 running Homeassistant. From there, I can use your Grafana interface (nice job!) to display the results.

Another hack I'm going to try is to use an ESP32 packaged in a WEMOS D1 Mini format. It's slightly wider, but I'm hoping to squeeze it on the board ( so that I can add other sensors like an MQ-4 (natural gas) and MQ-7 (carbon monoxide) using the additional ADC pins on the ESP32. The Bluetooth on the ESP32 also provides the future possibility of connecting it to sensors like an Inkbird and acting as an MQTT gateway (example: I'd love to hear if someone has already done this with an Inkbird IBS-TH1.

Stuart could you share the code changes you made to support MQTT and HomeAssistant? I'm wanting to get it reporting data to HomeAssistant as well, but I'm new to MQTT and unsure how that would work.

Or Jeff, are you still considering HomeAssistant? It has been great for me, and always looking for more integrations to it.

Do you know if we could swap out the Plantower PM2.5 PMS5003 senor to something else like the PMS9103M? I have not been able to find a clear comparison of the different sensors and what would be best for a house.

Now sure what your data ownership issues are, but you can read directly from the device, there's even an example graphana dashboard if you want to avoid using a cloud. The data is yours to do with as you wish.

It was my understanding you had to use an app to do the initial setup of the AirThings devices, but if you can do it completely standalone, separate from an Internet connection, that would make my opinion a lot more favorable! Though it's still quite pricey.

It seems to me that perhaps if you rotated the entire sensor assembly 90 degrees counterclockwise, the convection airflow passing over the temperature sensor would be mitigated at least somewhat. Seems like an easy fix, you'd just have to rotate the output on the OLED display in your Arduino sketch. I think that's possible by simply adjusting the parameters during initialization of the OLED library. Does this make sense?

By the way, it would be awesome if you combined this sensor data with a controller on your furnace fan (separate from the heating and cooling) or another actuator (perhaps controlling a window opener or a fan to the outside, or both) to automatically keep the particulate and CO2 levels low. If your furnace has a HEPA filter, it'll handle the particulates, and the air flow should handle the CO2 buildup. The way I see it, you could manually calibrate a PID controller based on taking readings periodically. It may be possible to do this automatically over a certain period of time since you're collecting time-series data on your rpi. It would neat to use some basic time-series predictive modelling to give proactive notifications about participate and CO2 levels going high. This link has a super simple tutorial for Python that you could walk through and apply on the data coming straight out of your grafana instance:…
Walking through this stuff would make for a great YouTube video, with a fairly minimal amount of burden I think.

I'd try connecting the SHT sensors with wire and just letting them dangle at the bottom of the case or near a vent hole, but it's probably 50/50 between locally generated heat throwing off the results and, well, there's a reason they're $2.55 from alibaba. Although digikey's prices get similarly reasonable at the thousand-per unit price, so it's not obvious that they're chips that fell off the back of Sensiron's QC truck in Shenzen.

I have been looking for a DIY temperature and humidity sensor that incorporates a Raspberry Pi for a while. Thank you for including this within the internet pi project and making it a simple switch to flip. I have the parts on order and will try building this when they come in.

What is the noise level like on the fan in the PM2.5 sensor? Would it be noticeable near a bed at night?

Would you be interested in gathering a bunch of pre-orders of unassembled kits and then buying a bulk order to save on pricing? I’d pre-pay for a few kits myself — and I’m sure there are other followers on your various social media channels that would do the same. I’d offer to organize it myself but I’m just swamped.

Hi, great video - pleasure to watch that! Have you had any chance to try something more what is more like a plug-n-play I mean some usb dongle (supported by rpi or openwrt perhaps)?

How would you go about using the spare D pins to add additional sensor (ozone, carbon monoxide, etc)?

How simple would it be to adapt the code to spit other sensors (Ozone, carbon monoxide etc) data across if we attached them to some of the spare digital pins?

I'm an Arduino guy and would like to have the home monitoring bits.
would it be too much to ask to have a video showing the noobiest, noob verion of how to do the Pi stuff ?

I did make a simple temperature/humidity on an WEMOS as an AP so I could long on and read the data, but I would like to get the data logging and graphs.

I've been looking at indoor air quality after doing some weatherization, and starting to shop around for new HVAC gear.

I have a few ESP32 boards with various sensors (the Sensirion SCD4x for CO2), but I've found the Awair Element to be the winner. It looks great, priced pretty reasonably, and offers local-only (no internet access needed) API.

Info about the local API here:…

I have two of them, and a couple of other CO2 sensors. It's been eye opening. CO2 levels pretty rapidly build up in my house, so definitely going to look at getting an ERV with a new HVAC system.

At $300 for each of the elements you can build 5 of these sensors and distribute them around the house. One thing that becomes apparent by measuring the outside and inside air simultaneously is that it won't matter how much you exchange air if the PM2.5 and CO2 levels are similar to indoors.

Thanks again for the post Jeff - I've built five of these and put them in various places in the house using the pull request to allow for the scrapable metric end-point with great results - now just to figure out some of the nuances with Prometheus and Graphana to get the dashboard to look right.

Thank you so much Jeff. Since being made aware of this project, I bought a kit and put it together a few days ago. Now looking forward to figuring out how to integrate it with my HomeAssistant so I can track it with the rest of my local home data.

Excellent! Hope it works great for you. One way to get it in is using ESPHome for the sensor—it seems like that would be the quickest path to get it integrated with HomeAssistant.

So I am having trouble getting the sensor to send the data to the dashboard. I have the internet pi setup and i can see the internet speeds and pi hole is working but nothing from the sensor is making it there. The sensor is working great on the led screen, not sure how to find out what i am doing wrong!

When do you think you'll be publishing a tutorial on how to get the data into Grafana/Prometheus? Also I'd love to be able to get this data into my Synology Nas as I already have Grafana and Prometheus installed there, I just need steps on how to get the data from my AirGradient into it.

Thanks for the great work.

I'm getting some very mixed results with my CO2 sensor while trying a couple of different power sources for powering the board. So far I've tried:

- My laptop's USB port(s).
- A USB hub (which is connected to the laptop).
- 3 USB chargers (two that go up to 5v/2A, one that goes up to 5v/1A).
- A power bank.

Depending on the input voltage that is being fed into the CO2 sensors I get back results in different value ranges or in the worst case scenario the sensor errors out and always reports 0 ppm. Specifically, using the G+ and G0 pins, I've measured the input voltage that goes into the CO2 sensor when connected to each power source and these are the results I got:

- Laptop USB ports: 4.83v - 4.86v -> 0ppm, fatal error (bit 1) and algorithm error (bit 3) of MeterStatus are set.
- The 2 5v/2A chargers: like above.
- Power bank (over 75% charge): like above.
- USB hub and 5v/1A charger: 4.66v - 4.70v and 4.66v - 4.73v -> difference of around 300PPM between value ranges depending on which power sources I use, errors bits not set.
- Power bank (under 75% charge): I forgot to measure the input voltage (will do once it gets low enough again). Error bits no longer set, seems to report the most accurate values (I left the sensor outside and it was registering between 350-420ppm). While inside, it registers values around 600PPM lower than in the case of the USB hub and the 5v/1A charger.

According to the spec sheet it should handle any voltage between 4.5v and 5.25v so I don't really know what to make out of these results. Could it be that my unit is busted?

On a unrelated note, checkout ESPEasy. It's a firmware that you flash on the board, it offers a web interface for configuring devices (including the OLED display) and even has options for publishing using MQTT, UDP, (Generic) HTTP (and many more). Feels much nicer and less like a hack compared to AirGradient's Arduino code.

My screen isn't turning on. But i can get the blink sketch to work