Fixing a 2011 MacBook Pro booting to a Grey Screen - AMD Radeon Video Glitch

I've been a Mac user for years, and I've repaired hundreds of different Macs, from the early II series to the latest 2015 and 2016 model MacBook Pros, iMacs (and other Apple hardware to boot!), and there is almost never a hardware situation where I've thrown in the towel and told someone to ditch their Mac.

The 2011 MacBook Pro has, for almost a decade, been the exception to that rule. There was a major flaw in the AMD Radeon GPUs included with that model year's logic board which seemed to cause GPU failure either due to overheating, internal chip problems, BGA solder joints getting broken, or a combination of the above. The problem was so rampant, Apple was forced to set up a free repair program for affected MacBook Pros—though the 2011 model has since been dropped from that program. I've handled three 2011 MacBook Pros (none of them my own—I had an Air back then), and all three of them were scrapped because of the GPU issue.

My sister just turned over her 2011 15" MacBook Pro, which she said was running slow, and I dug in. First off, it was using a slow 5200 RPM hard disk; after replacing that with a nice, fast SSD, and ensuring she had 8 GB of RAM in the laptop, I was pretty pleased with my work, and was about to shut down the laptop and send it on its way. But then, I noticed the display would 'glitch'. Horizontal banding, some weird color issues... things I had seen before.

Replaced 5200 rpm hard drive HDD with Samsung 850 SSD in 2011 MacBook Pro
Replacing the slow hard drive with an SSD makes this thing feel brand new!

Beginning of the Debugging Journey

Fearing the worst, I rebooted into the Apple Hardware Test mode (right after startup sound, hold 'D' key). I ran the quick test, which found no errors. So I ran the full (super long) test... no errors again. Huh—usually the GPU issue would present itself during the AHT, but not this time.

Apple Hardware Test - No problems found. AHT

So I rebooted. Apple logo, then progress bar, then grey screen. Ten minutes later, still a grey screen—and the fans are spinning madly. Not good.

So then I tried:

  • Safe mode (hold down Shift from startup sound through to login or desktop)—same thing, stuck on grey screen after Apple logo + progress bar.
  • Recovery mode (hold down Command + R from startup sound to Apple logo)—same thing, again.
  • Internet Recovery mode (hold down Option + Command + R from startup sound to Apple logo)—same thing, again.

Getting nervous, I then tried single-user mode (hold down Command + S from startup sound until you see the matrix text going past as the Mac boots into it's FreeBSD underpinnings)—and was happy to find at least this worked fine. I did an fsck -y to check the hard disk. A few records were off, but they were repaired successfully. I didn't see anything obviously wrong, but knowing from past experience that problems usually surface only when the GPU/Radeon .kext files (Kernel Extensions) are loaded... I was assuming the worst.

I was going to pop out the SSD and RAM, and suggest my sister sell the laptop for scrap... but then I thought twice—I would look if there was any possible way to resurrect this thing.

Obviously everything else was working fine—Internet Recovery proved wifi/networking was okay. Single user mode proved disk, RAM, CPU, and even integrated graphics were okay. The only thing that seemed wrong was the Radeon GPU. Surely there's a way to bypass it!

Lucky for me, I found this answer on Stack Exchange: GPU problem - Boot Hangs on Grey Screen.

Attempting to drop the Radeon .kexts

That answer had a fairly comprehensive guide to—using software changes only—disable the Radeon GPU and get the Mac happy again.

After running through the guide twice, I eventually got the Mac to boot... to a grey screen again. But this time it would reboot itself within a minute or so, so that was different! Alas, after hacking around a bit more with System Integrity Protection disabled, the reboot cycle eventually became quite short indeed:

(This got old, fast.)

Hitting dead ends when attempting the software fix, I was about ready to throw in the towel... but then I scrolled further in that Stack Exchange answer, and noticed a link to this interesting article: MacBook 2011 Radeon GPU Disable - Real Radeongate Solution.

Being somewhat handy with a soldering iron (but having never done SMD work—basically, soldering little bits and bobs that are the size of a speck of dust!), I thought I'd give it a go. Better than telling my sister to junk the laptop!

Hardware hack to cut off the GPU entirely

I'm not going to rehash the entire article from RealMacMods (after all, they found the process, and they also offer it as a service for $85 for anyone not willing or able to do it himself!), but I did want to highlight a few parts where I think it's important to further illustrate what needs to happen.

The first part of the process involves prepping the software side of the Mac by doing the following:

  1. Build a USB boot drive with Arch Linux.
  2. Boot the MacBook Pro from said USB drive (hold option key at startup to choose it).
  3. Follow the directions to get in the right Arch Linux boot mode so you get to the console.
  4. Hack your EFI by adding a file telling your Mac to disable the Radeon GPU.
  5. Reboot into Safe Boot mode (Shift key all the way through startup).
  6. Shut down using the Apple Menu > Shut Down option.

Again, see the source article from RealMacMods for the gory details (they even offer a $10 download to package up the fix for you—well worth it if you're not used to a command line!).

Once that's done, it's time to get your hands dirty, by permanently modifying the MacBook Pro's logic board!

First, to prepare the patient for surgery:

  1. Unplug the Mac, put it on a nice, non-scratching, non-static surface, and flip it over. (I use a cutting mat on my workbench... which is an old desk).
  2. Unscrew the 10 tiny phillips screws on the bottom.
  3. Pull off the back cover (should come off quite easily unless it's dented somewhere), and place it aside.

At this point, you're going to want to make sure you have the tools to make this operation not-impossible—you need to desolder / remove a tiny resistor ('R8911') from the logic board, and you need a few tools to do that:

Weller soldering station and magnifying glass at workbench with 2011 MacBook Pro
Pictured: Weller soldering station, helping hand with magnifying glass, and a precision tip for the soldering iron.

You can use a handheld magnifying glass... but if you're like me, you're going to need both hands to steady the soldering iron when desoldering the tiny, tiny resistor from the logic board. How tiny? Take a look through the magnifying glass:

MacBook Pro 2011 Radeon GPU disable resistor through magnifying glass

Still don't see it? Let's zoom and enhance:

MacBook Pro 2011 Radeon GPU resistor to disable highlighted through magnifying glass

And a wider shot, for perspective:

MacBook Pro 2011 Radeon GPU resistor highlighted

So, with the resistor identified, it's time to turn on the iron (I set mine to 500°F and tinned the tip with a tiny bit of lead-free solder) and get to work! I hold the iron in my left hand, and provide a little resistive force to steady it with my right hand. Touch the tip of the iron to each metal side of the resistor (where the joints are), alternating one side to the other for about 1-2 seconds each, until you notice the resistor starts to become free from the logic board. Once that happens (after about 15 seconds in my case), put the tip against the side of the resistor facing the open space on the logic board, and push, with a very slight upward (away from the logic board) force.

You might need to keep heating the resistor a bit before it pops free. And if you're like me, you might shoot the little resistor a few inches across the logic board! Just be sure to do the following after it comes off:

  1. Make sure there's not a solder joint between the two pads where the resistor used to be. If there are, heat the pads with the iron tip until you can 'wick away' the solder a little. Just enough to not join the two pads together.
  2. Set down the iron / put it in it's holder, and get the resistor off the logic board. Hopefully you can just lift the bottom-cover-less laptop, turn it over, and you see a tiny black speck fall to you work surface.

After you get the resistor off. Take a second and marvel at it's minute size. And realize there are thousands of these things soldered to the logic board!

Resistors - through hole and tiny SMD surface mount

Those are specks of dust in the image—except for the very-slightly-larger black spec next to the standard through-hole resistor. The resistor is small enough I can't pick it up with my fingers—or even a standard needle-nose pliers!

With the resistor gone, one step remains: replace the bottom cover, plug it in, and turn it on!

I did so, and less than 40 seconds later (the SSD makes the boot process fast!), the Mac was as good as it's ever been, sans AMD Radeon GPU:

Intel HD Graphics 3000 integrated graphics GPU and no AMD Radeon GPU on 2011 MacBook Pro

One last thread that was worth a read-through for more background and debugging information was from the RealMacMods forum, After GPU repair issues (R8911 removal). After removing the resistor, be very careful when upgrading the OS or making other major changes (be sure to keep current backups!). And, as suggested by RMM, try to avoid resetting the NVRAM, just in case that makes things go a bit south.

Comments

Great Read! - fixed two 2011 MBP's that I got oon E-bay this way. THANKS. I also checked out as you said Real Mac Mods.

Does this mod have an impact on Thunderbolt I/O or use of MiniDisplayPort adapters for additional monitor?

I didn't test either, but I would assume the external monitor will work okay, but you won't have the same performance as before the operation, since only the onboard chip (which can't support two high res displays at the same time as well as the Radeon) is crunching graphics.

i spoke with adam at real mac mods who said you dont need a hard drive inside the mac to do this procedure.
he also said if if there is no hard drive the safe boot procedure is not required.

Just wondering, what if I remove the resistor and do a clean installation of the OS, would it still needs the EFI mode? Because technically the OS should see the laptop as having only the Intel GPU only.

Anytime that you would update or do a clean install it will overwrite the efi chip and the efi hack would need to be performed again.

Thank you very much for this! Very helpful.

Thank you very much for this... I'm not talented enough to do this procedure myself, but someone savvy generously accepted to try it for me... And it's amazing! I've decided to change my HDD for a SSD... and It's like having a bran new CPU. It's been almost a week since the hack and everything works perfectly. Only thing : my external monitor (minidisplay) stopped working. Do you know if anyone had the same issue? Is their a fix (or is it the price to pay to kill the Radeon beast?) Best!

I think external monitors should still work after this hack, but it could be that the resolution is too high for the integrated graphics to drive the external display, or maybe for some reason the Mac is not recognizing the external display at all due to some signaling issue.

Do you have the ability to try connecting through a different interface? E.g. if the monitor has DVI and VGA, and DVI is not working, try the VGA connection instead.

From what I know, the external displays physically relies on the AMD, so I would not expect it to work after this hack. Anyway, it's way better to have a working Macbook (with pretty decent performances given its age) without external display than a very expensive flat grey desk lamp turning on and off.

Hi Jeff and thanks for that article !

I did the same thing to my machine (early 2011 15") but noticed that the thermal sensor from de dGPU was still reporting temperatures from 35 to 45 degree (using iStatmenu), have you got the same thing ?

As I understanded the mod was to cut power to the chip powering the dGPU so… that seems od to me

Thank you for finding and posting this fantastic article from realmacmods.com !!! I just saved my early 2011 MacBook Pro!

I did this mod and now my screen wont turn on help!

I got the same.... black screen when switch on... can see Keyboard have light on but Screen nothing, even cannot hear any startup sound!

Anyone experience the same and how do you solve it?

I have similar issues. MBP 15" works fine using internal GPU after software mods. Resistor removal - black screen and no hdmi but MBP still works fine I can share desktop and work on it from another mac.

I wander if the firmware update is needed? I got MBP8,2 BootRom MBP81.0047.B32 SMC 1.69F4
What is yours?

No solution so far.

I see there are updates MBP81.0047.2AB and SMC1.69f3
weird though SMC seems lower version that I have, hard to tell if boot rom vertion is lower or higher.

Hi Jeff, Thank you for this post. I have the same issue with my early 2011 MBP. In fact, I am on my second logic board, the first having been replaced under Apple's repair program after the first crash. So, I wanted to ask you as (as well as others who have used this fix) whether you have faced any issues with the MBP since you did this, since it has been 7 months since your post. Thanks in advance.

if anyone wants macbook parts apart from the mother board contact me cuz i killed a macbook but i paid less than 100 dollars for it anyways

Great article!!

Is it necessary to disable the resistor? I know that by doing so you'll save heat and battery, but if I don't have any concerns about that are the software mods sufficient?

I ran it for a few weeks with the software mods only. I found I had to rerun the script almost every time I rebooted or it wouldn’t work. I decided to remove the resistor and it’s been flawless since.

I have a late 2011 17 inch Macbook Pro, and have had the logic board replaced once already (under Apples extended program) although that expired in December 2016, and the problem with the AMD chip reoccured just a couple of days ago! This is such a fantastic laptop and I have no reason to upgrade it as it performs fantastically with an SSD and 16GB ram. I've just performed this mod, both the EFI mod and hardware resistor removal and I was amazed to discover it worked! I figured I've got nothing to lose and everything to gain - now my AMD chip doesn't appear in the list exactly as described, and it boots way quicker too.

One thing I would say when removing the resistor - that thing is so damned small and I was worried I was going to damage nearby components by trying to get this tiny thing off. All it took was a very small flat blade screwdriver applying just a tiny bit of pressure to the side of the resistor whilst applying heat to one of the legs on the resistor - after that the leg detached and I was able to just move the resistor back and forth a tiny bit to detach it from the other leg and a nice clean removal! I haven't done the jumper mod yet so my display wakes up after sleep so I just need to remember to do a shut down each time instead of a sleep but that mod is for another day...

hi i would like to do this
Build a USB boot drive with Arch Linux.
Boot the MacBook Pro from said USB drive (hold option key at startup to choose it).
Follow the directions to get in the right Arch Linux boot mode so you get to the console.
Hack your EFI by adding a file telling your Mac to disable the Radeon GPU.
Reboot into Safe Boot mode (Shift key all the way through startup).
Shut down using the Apple Menu > Shut Down option.

but my macbook doesnt boot from external drives it also hangs there is that going to cause my trouble?
thank you

Ugh!!!! So I was thrilled to follow these steps and resurrect my 2011 Macbook Pro 17" laptop. I even picked up a Samsung 512GB SSD. Everything worked flawless... except the display keys would not dim the screen. Ok, no biggie. After googling a bit I found that resetting the NVRAM/PRAM should fix this.

I now have a booted laptop with a black screen! It has the keyboard backlight on and the second internal drive is chugging away, but no display!!! I've reset the NVRAM a couple of times and the SMC too. Still no joy.

Any ideas?

Whew! A HUGE thanks to Adam at RealMacMods.com for giving the direction I needed. I had purchased there packaged up files to boot and mod the Gfx driver use over at https://realmacmods.com/macbook-2011-radeon-gpu-disable/. After I screwed things up, I reached out to him. He provided these instructions:

1. unplug the internal HDD and CD drive
2. plug in USB thumb drive previously created to boot Ubuntu package (It is modded for MacBook pro)
3. hit power
4. wait 60 seconds
5. hit enter
6. wait 60 seconds
7. hit enter
8. shortly after, your screen should come one and you will be able to follow the instructions and run the tool again

Running the tool creates an EFI variable that tells the OS not to switch to the AMD GPU. Removing the resistor kills the power to the GPU.
The variable is stored in the NVRAM, so if you clear NVRAm it clears the custom variable.

The brightness issue is present in High Sierra, but not in Sierra or below. The only viable solution in HS at this point is an app called Brightness Slider in the app store. It's free.

Saved my bacon!! Thanks again Adam!

That's awesome, and thanks so much for posting the follow-up here!