ansible

apt_key deprecated in Debian/Ubuntu - how to fix in Ansible

For many packages, like Elasticsearch, Docker, or Jenkins, you need to install a trusted GPG key on your system before you can install from the official package repository.

Traditionally, you'd run a command like:

wget -qO - https://artifacts.elastic.co/GPG-KEY-elasticsearch | sudo apt-key add -

But if you do that in modern versions of Debian or Ubuntu, you get the following warning:

Warning: apt-key is deprecated. Manage keyring files in trusted.gpg.d instead (see apt-key(8)).

This way of adding apt keys still works for now (in mid-2022), but will stop working in the next major releases of Ubuntu and Debian (and derivatives). So it's better to stop the usage now. In Ansible, you would typically use the ansible.builtin.apt_key module, but even that module has the following deprecation warning:

Using an Ansible playbook with an SSH bastion / jump host

Since I've set this up a number of times, but I just realized I've never documented it on my blog, I thought I'd finally do that.

I have a set of servers that are running on a private network. That network is connected to the Internet through a single reverse proxy / 'bastion' host.

But I still want to be able to manage the servers on the private network behind the bastion from outside.

Method 1 - Inventory vars

The first way to do it with Ansible is to describe how to connect through the proxy server in Ansible's inventory. This is helpful for a project that might be run from various workstations or servers without the same SSH configuration (the configuration is stored alongside the playbook, in the inventory).

In my Ansible project, I had an inventory file like the following:

Ansible playbook to upgrade Ubuntu/Debian servers and reboot if needed

I realized I've never posted this playbook to my blog... I needed to grab it for a project I'm working on, so I figured I'd post it here for future reference.

Basically, I need a playbook I can run whenever, that will ensure all packages are upgraded, then checks if a reboot is required, and if so, reboots the server. Afterwards, it removes any dependencies no longer required.

---
- hosts: all
  gather_facts: yes
  become: yes

  tasks:
    - name: Perform a dist-upgrade.
      ansible.builtin.apt:
        upgrade: dist
        update_cache: yes

    - name: Check if a reboot is required.
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /var/run/reboot-required
        get_md5: no
      register: reboot_required_file

    - name: Reboot the server (if required).
      ansible.builtin.reboot:
      when: reboot_required_file.stat.exists == true

    - name: Remove dependencies that are no longer required.
      ansible.builtin.apt:
        autoremove: yes

Install Python 3.9 on Raspberry Pi OS or Debian 10 (for Ansible or other uses)

I've started getting a lot of bug reports on my repos to the effect of "Ansible won't install on my Raspberry Pi anymore". Accompanying it is a debug message like one of the following:

$ python3 -m pip install ansible
...
No matching distribution found for ansible-core<2.13,>=2.12.0 (from ansible)

# Alternatively:
ERROR: No matching distribution found for ansible-core<2.13,>=2.12.0

The problem is ansible-core 2.12 has a new hard requirement for Python 3.8 or newer. And ansible-core 2.12 is included in Ansible 5.0.0, which was recently released. Raspberry Pi OS, which was based on Debian 10 ("Buster") until recently, includes Python 3.7, which is too old to satisfy Ansible's installation requirements.

There was recently a fix that makes it so Ansible 5.x won't get installed on these older systems, but who wants to get stuck on old unsupported Ansible versions?

There are three options:

Automating the Uncommon - AnsibleFest 2021 presentation

At AnsibleFest 2021, I presented a session titled Automating the Uncommon - Ansible automates everything!.

Since watching on-demand versions of the AnsibleFest sessions requires a signup, I thought I'd also post the session to my YouTube channel, so everyone can learn from it without registering. The session seemed well-received, and I hope it shows that, as I state in my 'Rule of Golden Hammers':

Jeff's rule of Golden Hammers - If you know a tool well enough, and the tool is good enough, it's okay to do weird things with it.

I demonstrate how I use Ansible to:

Allowing Ansible playbooks to work with new user groups on first run

For a long time, I've had some Ansible playbooks—most notably ones that would install Docker then start some Docker containers—where I had to split them in two parts, or at least run them twice, because they relied on the control user having a new group assigned for some later tasks.

The problem is, Ansible would connect over SSH to a server, and use that connection for subsequent tasks. If you add a group to the user (e.g. docker), then keep running more tasks, that new group assignment won't be picked up until the SSH connection is reset (similar to how if you're logged in, you'd have to log out and log back in to see your new groups).

The easy fix for this? Add a reset_connection meta task in your play to force Ansible to drop its persistent SSH connection and reconnect to the server:

Setting up a Mac mini from MacStadium for headless CI

I recently got an offer from MacStadium to use one of their dedicated Mac minis to perform CI and testing tasks for my Mac-based open source projects (for example, my Mac Dev Ansible Playbook, which I use to configure my own Macs).

Apple logo on glowy laptop background

So I thought I'd document a little bit in this blog post about how I configured the Mac mini for more secure remote administration, since Macs tend to be a little more 'open' out of the box than comparable Linux machines that I'm used to working with.

Securing SSH

First of all, I used ssh-copy-id to add my SSH key to the default administrator account on the Mac mini that was created for me:

Ansible Questions and Answers from the final Ansible 101 livestream

Over the past four months, I live-streamed a series of episodes covering all the basics of using Ansible for infrastructure automation in my Ansible 101 series on YouTube.

In the last episode of the series, I asked viewers to send in questions that I could answer on the final live stream, and there were many great questions sent in. Some of those questions and my answers are posted below, and you can also view the entire episode in the embedded video below:

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Matias

View this Q&A in the livestream

How do you organize your Ansible tasks? What are the best practices for Ansible?