Soup to Nuts: Using Drupal VM to build local and prod

In preparing for my session Developing for Drupal 8 with Drupal VM at MidCamp later this month, I wanted to build out an example of a canonical "this is the way I'd do it" Drupal 8 site using nothing but Drupal VM and Composer. And I wanted to build both my local development environment and a production environment on DigitalOcean, all using the Ansible automation playbooks built into Drupal VM.

I also wanted to brush up Drupal VM's production environment management capabilities, so I made a few more tweaks to Drupal VM and the main Ansible role that powers the Drupal deployment and installation, and released Drupal VM 4.4 with some great production environment improvements!

Drupal VM can manage production environments, too!

Before you get started, you need to have PHP and Composer installed on your computer. On my Mac, I installed PHP via Homebrew, and Composer using the manual global installation method. But as long as you can run a composer command and have an up-to-date version of Composer (run composer self-update to check!), you should be all set!

Table of Contents

  1. Create a Drupal project with Composer
  2. Build a local development environment with Drupal VM
  3. Build a prod environment with Drupal VM
  4. Pull the prod site down to local
  5. Update the site with Ansible
  6. Open issues

Also, here's the video of the MidCamp 2017 presentation which gives a high-level overview of everything in this post:

Create a Drupal project with Composer

  1. Create a new Drupal 8 project using drupal-project: composer create-project drupal-composer/drupal-project:8.x-dev projectname --stability dev --no-interaction (replace projectname with the name of your site).
  2. Change directories into the new projectname directory, and take a look around—you should see some Composer files, as well as a web folder. The web folder contains your project's document root, where Drupal and contributed modules and themes will live.
  3. Add a few modules you know you'll need on the site: composer require drupal/admin_toolbar:^1.0 drupal/pathauto:^1.0 drupal/redirect:^1.0
  4. Add in development modules as --dev dependencies (these modules should only be present in the codebase locally, never on production!): composer require --dev drupal/devel:^1.0

Now that we have a full Drupal 8 codebase, it's time to start committing things to it so we can deploy the site in the future, or roll back changes if we decide we don't need them. So let's set up a git repository:

  1. Run git init to track your project in a brand new Git repository.
  2. Run git add -A to add all the files that should be version-controlled to the new Git repository.
  3. Run git commit -m "Initial commit." to store all these changes in the project's first ever commit!

Build a local development environment with Drupal VM

A Drupal site is pretty boring if it's just a bunch of PHP files! We need a development environment suitable for local development on any Mac, Linux, or Windows PC, so we can add Drupal VM as another --dev dependency (we don't need Drupal VM in our production codebase, just like we shouldn't need Devel or other local development dependencies). Following the documentation on using Drupal VM as a Composer Dependency, the first step is to add Drupal VM via Composer:

  1. Add Drupal VM: composer require --dev geerlingguy/drupal-vm
  2. Create a VM configuration directory—in my case, I'll call it vm: mkdir vm.
  3. Create a new config.yml file inside this directory, and add some sane defaults (these will be baseline defaults for extra security hardening and performance—we'll override some things for flexibility and debugging later, in a Vagrant-specific config file):

    # Composer project settings.
    drupal_build_composer_project: false
    drupal_build_composer: false
    drupal_composer_dependencies: []
    # Drupal install settings.
    drupal_site_name: "My Production Website"
    drupal_core_path: "/var/www/drupal/web"
    drupal_install_site: true
      - name: "Drupal Cron"
        minute: "*/15"
        job: "{{ drush_path }} -r {{ drupal_core_path }} core-cron --quiet"
    # Other overrides.
    php_version: "7.1"
    php_sendmail_path: "/usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i"
      - drush
      - varnish
    # Other secure defaults.
    dashboard_install_dir: ''
    apache_packages_state: installed
    # Restrict the firewall to only ports that are required for external services.
      - "22"
      - "80"
      - "443"
    firewall_log_dropped_packets: true
    # Set Apache to listen on port 81 (internal only), and Varnish on 80.
    apache_listen_port: "81"
    varnish_listen_port: "80"
    varnish_default_backend_port: "81"
  4. Also, since we added in some modules, we can have Drupal VM automatically install them the first time we build the site, by adding them to drupal_enable_modules in config.yml (note that you can override any of the config in Drupal VM's default.config.yml in your project-specific config.yml):

      - admin_toolbar
      - admin_toolbar_tools
      - pathauto
      - redirect
  5. There are some configuration settings that should be different in the project's local environment, and Drupal VM automatically uses a vagrant.config.yml file when building the local Vagrant VM. So we'll add those local-environment-specific overrides in a vagrant.config.yml alongside the config.yml file:

    # Local Vagrant options.
    vagrant_machine_name: local-example
    # Configure the synced folder.
      - local_path: .
        destination: /var/www/drupal
        type: nfs
    # Undo some of the extra-hardened security settings in config.yml.
    drupal_account_pass: admin
    drupal_db_password: drupal
    mysql_root_password: root
    php_sendmail_path: "/opt/mailhog/mhsendmail"
      - drush
      - mailhog
      - varnish
    dashboard_install_dir: /var/www/dashboard
    extra_security_enabled: false
      - "22"
      - "25"
      - "80"
      - "81"
      - "443"
      - "8025"
    firewall_log_dropped_packets: false
    # Set Apache to listen on port 80, and Varnish on 81.
    apache_listen_port: "80"
    varnish_listen_port: "81"
    varnish_default_backend_port: "80"
  6. Create a 'delegating Vagrantfile', which will be used by Vagrant to connect all the dots and make sure Drupal VM works correctly with your project. Create a Vagrantfile inside your project's root directory, with the following contents:

    # The absolute path to the root directory of the project.
    ENV['DRUPALVM_PROJECT_ROOT'] = "#{__dir__}"
    # The relative path from the project root to the VM config directory.
    # The relative path from the project root to the Drupal VM directory.
    ENV['DRUPALVM_DIR'] = "vendor/geerlingguy/drupal-vm"
    # Load the real Vagrantfile
    load "#{__dir__}/#{ENV['DRUPALVM_DIR']}/Vagrantfile"
  7. Also, to ensure that you don't accidentally commit Vagrant-related files in your project's Git repository, add the following to the .gitignore file in your project root:

    # Ignore Vagrant files.
  8. At this point, after running through Drupal VM's Quick Start Guide, you should be able to run vagrant up, and in just a few minutes, you can visit the URL defined in config.yml for vagrant_hostname (in this case, to see a fresh new Drupal 8 site!

  9. Make sure you commit your changes that added Drupal VM to the project: git add -A then git commit -m "Add Drupal VM to the project."

Note: For easier provisioning and local usage, be sure to install extra Vagrant plugins: vagrant plugin install vagrant-vbguest vagrant-hostsupdater vagrant-cachier

Build a prod environment with Drupal VM

Having a local development environment is well and good... but it would be great if Drupal VM could also manage a production server to match the local environment identically! Luckily, Drupal VM can do this quite easily. Most of the steps below follow the documentation guide for Deploying to a production environment.

  1. Create a new Droplet/Linode/other type of cloud-hosted Virtual Server. You should make sure to include your SSH public key when building the server (or manually add it to the root account with ssh-copy-id after the server is built). See the Deploying to prod guide for details.
  2. Define configuration that should only apply to the production environment: create a file named prod.config.yml inside the vm directory, with the following configuration:

    # Deploy from the project's Git repository.
    drupal_deploy: true
    drupal_deploy_repo: ""
    drupal_deploy_dir: /var/www/drupal
    # Set the domain for this site appropriately.
    drupal_domain: ""
    vagrant_hostname: "{{ drupal_domain }}"
    # Only add the production docroot virtualhost.
      - servername: "{{ drupal_domain }}"
        documentroot: "{{ drupal_core_path }}"
        extra_parameters: "{{ apache_vhost_php_fpm_parameters }}"
  3. For improved security, you should store sensitive passwords (and any other variables like API keys) in an encrypted vars file. Drupal VM recommends using Ansible Vault to encrypt a secrets.yml file containing said passwords and keys. Create a secrets.yml file in the vm directory using the command ansible-vault create secrets.yml, then put the following inside (replacing the actual passwords with your own secure ones!):

    drupal_account_pass: add-your-secure-password-1-here
    drupal_db_password: add-your-secure-password-2-here                                                                  
    mysql_root_password: add-your-secure-password-3-here
  4. Create an Ansible inventory file, in the vm folder (alongside other Drupal VM configuration), named inventory, with the contents below (replace with your server's IP address, and my_admin_username with the admin username you'll set in the next step):

    [drupalvm] ansible_ssh_user=my_admin_username
  5. Bootstrap the server with your own administrator account and SSH key (this is a one-time process when you build the server):

    1. Copy the example bootstrap vars to a plain vars file: cd vendor/geerlingguy/drupal-vm/examples/prod/bootstrap/ && cp example.vars.yml vars.yml
    2. Edit the vars.yml file with your own information (e.g. your desired user account name, a password, etc.).
    3. Go back to your project's root directory.
    4. Run the init.yml playbook: ansible-playbook -i vm/inventory vendor/geerlingguy/drupal-vm/examples/prod/bootstrap/init.yml -e "ansible_ssh_user=root"
      • You may need to accept the host key the first time you connect to the server. Type yes to accept the host key.
      • You can delete the vars.yml file you created in step 1. Just remember the administrator account's password in case you need it in the future!
    • Note that this manual step may be fixed at some point in the future. It currently can't be automated correctly using the same exact setup that's used for Vagrant locally.
  6. Run the main Drupal VM playbook to provision the entire server: DRUPALVM_ENV=prod ansible-playbook -i vm/inventory vendor/geerlingguy/drupal-vm/provisioning/playbook.yml -e "config_dir=$(pwd)/vm" --become --ask-become-pass --ask-vault-pass
    • Note the addition of --ask-become-pass (this will ask for the password you set in the vars.yml file for the admin account you configured when bootstrapping the server).
    • Note the addition of --ask-vault-pass (this will ask you for the secrets.yml Ansible Vault password so Ansible can temporarily decrypt the contents of that file).

After 5-10 minutes (or longer, depending on how many things you're installing!), the playbook should complete, and if you visit your production VM's URL, you should see Drupal 8 installed, yay!

Note: You can also have Ansible forward SSH keys if you use ssh-agent; this is helpful when doing things like cloning from a private Git repository, because otherwise you'd have to manually place a key on the server before running the Ansible playbook. To use SSH Agent forwarding, add an ansible.cfg file in your project root, and put in the following contents:

ssh_args = -o ForwardAgent=yes

You also need to add any keys you want ssh-agent to use via ssh-add -K (check what keys are currently loaded using ssh-add -l).

Pull the prod site down to local

Now the rubber meets the road. It's nice to be able to build a new site, but sites are nothing if they aren't maintained. The first step in maintaining a live Drupal site is to be able to pull the database and files down to your local environment so you can test your changes with production data.

Drush will be our weapon of choice, and using it to pull down the database is very simple, using the sql-sync command. The first step is to describe two aliases to Drush—we can add them to our project so anyone else working on the site gets the same aliases by creating a file in our project in the path drush/site-aliases/aliases.drushrc.php, with the contents:

 * @file
 * Drush Aliases for

$aliases[''] = array(
'root' => '/var/www/drupal/web',
'uri' => '',
'remote-host' => '',
'remote-user' => 'vagrant',
'ssh-options' => '-o PasswordAuthentication=no -i ' . drush_server_home() . '/.vagrant.d/insecure_private_key'

$aliases[''] = array(
'root' => '/var/www/drupal/web',
'uri' => '',
'remote-host' => '',
'remote-user' => 'my_admin_username',

Then, to make sure Drush uses your project-specific settings and aliases, add a drush.wrapper file in the project root with the following contents:

#!/usr/bin/env sh
DIR=$( cd "$( dirname "${BASH_SOURCE[0]}" )" && pwd )
cd "`dirname $0`"
./vendor/bin/drush.launcher --local --alias-path=${DIR}/drush/site-aliases "$@"

Now, if you run drush status, you should see the live server status information. And if you run drush status, you'll see the local environment's status. To pull the production database down to your local environment, run:

drush sql-sync

Confirm you want to destroy the local database and replace it with the one from production, then after a minute or so, you should be able to work on your local environment to develop using production content and settings!

For files, you can use Drush's trusty rsync command (e.g. drush rsync -y, but for most sites, I prefer to install Stage File Proxy instead. That way you don't have to fully replicate the (often ginormous) files directory on your local machine just to see the site as it looks on prod.

Once everything's in sync, it's a good idea to:

  • Run drush updb -y if you might have updated code or modules (so database updates are applied)
  • Run drush cim -y if you have configuration that's updated in your local codebase
  • Run drush cr to reset caches, since you'll want the local environment to start fresh

Load in your browser, and you should now see that your local Drupal VM environment has all the wonderful content from production!

Update the site with Ansible

One of the first things I do on a Drupal 8 site is get all the configuration exported and checked into Git so configuration changes can easily be deployed to production. The first thing I'll do is create a config/default folder inside the project root (note that it's outside the project's docroot directory, for security reasons!). Then edit web/sites/default/settings.php and change the $config_directories['sync'] setting, which should be near the bottom of the file:

$config_directories['sync'] = '../config/default';

Then run drush cex to export the configuration, and git add -A, then git commit all of it to the repository. From this point on, any changes you make to the sites configuration when doing local development—from adding a content type, to removing a field, modifying a view, or even something mundane like changing the site's name—can be exported to code via drush cex then deployed to production!

Note: You'll also need to update this value in the production site's settings.php file (just this once). You can either use ansible with the lineinfile module to do this, or (for just this once, I won't tell anyone!) log into the server and run sudo vi /var/www/drupal/web/sites/default/settings.php and go to the bottom, replacing the sync line with $config_directories['sync'] = '../config/default';.

Change something simple, like the site name, or enable or disable a module, then run drush cex to export the update configuration. If you run git status you'll see exactly what changed. After you commit the changes to your Git repository then push them, it's time to deploy to production, yay!

Let Ansible do the hard work:

DRUPALVM_ENV=prod ansible-playbook -i vm/inventory vendor/geerlingguy/drupal-vm/provisioning/playbook.yml -e "config_dir=$(pwd)/vm" --sudo --ask-sudo-pass --ask-vault-pass --tags=drupal

This is the exact same command we ran earlier (to build the server), with one small addition: --tags=drupal. That flag tells Ansible to only run the tasks that are related to the Drupal site configuration and deployment.

Drupal VM production update deployment in Terminal

After a few minutes, you should see that there were a few changes reported by Ansible: the Drupal codebase was updated, database updates were run automatically, and caches were cleared. As of March 2017, other tasks (like configuration import, features revert, etc.) are not automatically run by Drupal VM, but that may change by the time you do this! My hope is to have this feature added in soon.

Open Issues

Currently the setup outlined above has a few issues—issues which currently block me from using Drupal VM on most of my own Drupal 8 standalone servers. Here are some of the the blockers I'm still working on (and you can help with!):

  1. 100% hands-free provisioning (even down to creating a DigitalOcean Droplet, Amazon Web Services EC2 instance, etc.).
  2. Not being able to tell the production instance to 'deploy from Git'. I fixed this while writing the blog post :)
  3. Slightly inflexible support for Ansible Vault usage—it's best practice to encrypt and securely encapsulate all production 'secrets' (API keys, passwords, etc.), but the way things work currently, you can only throw everything inside one secrets.yml file. Note that you can also add ENV['DRUPALVM_ANSIBLE_ARGS'] = '--ask-vault-pass' to your delegating Vagrantfile so you can run vagrant up with a secrets.yml file in place.

In the mean time, I often clone Drupal VM, then slightly fork it specifically for certain projects (e.g. the DrupalCamp St. Louis website). This way I still am using a familiar setup, but I can tailor it exactly to the particular deploy setup and strange infrastructure quirks required for a given site.


Interestingly, while I was working on this post (and a major overhaul of Drupal VM's production-environment-support readiness), I noticed that Lakshmi Narasimhan actually ran through the existing Drupal VM documentation (which I need to improve a bit in light of changes I made while working on this post) and wrote a post on DIY Drupal hosting: Drupal VM. Thanks for that post, and it reminded me of a few other rough edges that I'm working to iron out!

Great piece. I've been wanting to do this.

A couple notes: 1) In step 2, of build local, I'm not sure from reading this which directory I'm supposed to be in. 2) In step 4 of the same place, I'm not totally sure I should be adding those lines to the new config.yml I just created in the vm directory.


@psteve - great questions! Assume that you would run any command (unless otherwise written) in the project root directory. So in the project root, you'd have the vm folder with a config.yml file for your project's general Drupal VM settings. And you'd put the drupal_install_modules config in that file as well.

Another use for development environments is to share it with others. That's where this approach has a bit of a downside— it requires people have Composer installed on their host machine, and that new people introduced to the project run 'composer install' before simply running 'vagrant up'. I'm aware that adding drupal-vm as a Composer requirement is meant to make installation easier, but what is your recommended way to make composer a (dev not prod) requirement of drupal-vm instead? Looking to maintain the 'git clone project', 'vagrant up' two step workflow to a local development environment.

In that case (where you only want VirtualBox and Vagrant to be requirements, and nothing more), you can still use the same codebase, just with Drupal VM running standalone; see Drupal VM running 'Outside-In' for Windows development.

Hi Jeff,

Thank you for Drupal VM, the clear documentation and all the blog posts!

I noticed that you didn’t add "extra_security_enabled: true" to config.yml. Maybe it’s nice to add this or a note that you can add this to have basic security setup (for a beginner like me).

I have 3 questions (I cannot find this in the docs or readme files but maybe I’m missing something):

1. When I make changes to one of the configuration files (e.g add solr to installed_extras in config.yml) should I run the whole playbook again, run playbook.retry (with --limit @/path/to/docroot/vendor/geerlingguy/drupal-vm/provisioning/playbook.retry), use --tags (e.g. --tags=geerlingguy.solr) or something else?

2. Can I install software manually on my server with aptitude (like Let'sEncrypt/Cerbot and Linode’s longview)?

3. Security updates: should I update packages with aptitude or use a Drupal VM?